English translation from the original Hindi: Do not go out alone in the dark, men get excited by this. Do not go out alone at any time, some men get excited in such situations. Do not stay inside the house, both relatives and guests can rape. Do not stay without clothes, this excites men. … Continue reading Victim Blaming: The Patriarchy of Sex Crimes
With the rise of women’s history and the history of gender in the late twentieth century, feminist scholars and historians have contributed significantly to the body of knowledge regarding Indian women’s history. This has included women’s activities in both the nationalist and women’s movements, as well as feminist initiatives in social reform and the uplift … Continue reading The ‘invisibility’ of Muslim Women: Locating Muslim Women’s Voices in the History of Modern South Asia
Being a South Asian, Muslim, female, I have had to contend with remarks from fellows within my own community, on the choice of my study and research. Most will be familiar with the not so inaccurate stereotype of South Asians pursuing careers as doctors, lawyers, and engineers. This often creates a challenge to those within … Continue reading “You’re an Indian Muslim Woman, Why Study History?”
Issues of Muslim women’s marital rights have received significant media attention in recent years, whereby these women have highlighted gender inequalities in the unreformed legal system of Muslim personal law in India. Within these debates, the problem of polygamy has been a recurring theme, that has been lingering around the issues of Muslim personal law reform, and the implementation of a Uniform Civil Code in the interests of women’s rights.
Christian female missionaries played a prominent role in the spread and development of female education in colonial India. The missionary aim of ‘evangelisation through education’ placed literacy and learning high on the agenda of ‘women’s work for women’. Such work and its attendant successes, setbacks, obstacles, and failures, were extensively recorded by female missionaries, and … Continue reading Missionary Journals and a Rhetoric of Rescue: The Church of England Zenana Missionary Society and India’s Women (1880-1940)
Muslim reformers in nineteenth century India identified a need for Islamic reform due to a perceived decline of Islam in India. These reformers saw evidence of this decline in the adherence of Indian Muslims to false customs and practices disguised in the name of religion, and the accusations of ‘Muslim backwardness’ by colonial authorities. Muslim … Continue reading Islamic Reform and Female Education: Social Reforms for Muslim Women in Late Colonial India
Missionary Criticisms and the Religious Selection of Reform Social reforms in child marriage and female education were pursued in the late nineteenth century for the uplift of women’s conditions in Indian society. British criticisms on the treatment of women in India, encouraged Indian reformers to pursue changes to their conditions. The circumstances of British colonialism … Continue reading Indian Women’s Social Reform: Why Child Marriage, and Why Not Purdah?
Child marriage and the lack of female education were problems across both Hindu and Muslim women, and were highlighted particularly in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Yet, in the Indian age of reform, each religious community chose to focus on different aspects of their women’s social conditions as subjects for their reform campaigns. … Continue reading Child Marriage and Female Education: the Religious Character of Social Reform for Hindu and Muslim Women in Late Colonial India
Gender notions were crucial to the organisation of societies, yet this idea can now be challenged due to the work of early reformers, broadening the opportunities open to all regardless of social or biological positions.